The culture of flowers in Iran was always closely linked with the cultivation of the Persian garden… The medieval Persian garden in the form of the quadripartite architectural garden (chaharbagh) was the direct descendent of the ancient Persian «paradise» (paridaiza) of the Achemenid kings which had formed an intrinsic part of the imperial palace institution Even the advent of Islam to Iran did not exert a negative impact on Persian garden culture. Ḵosrow o Širin… … Širin an Armenian princess is of the same proud and aristocratic mettle as Vis both ardently faithful to their declared love and daring enough to force the hand of Fate a Destiny that plays in the case of Širin upon the weaknesses and youthful foibles of her lover Ḵosrow Parviz grandson of Ḵosrow I. Nizami describes his own style as gharib meaning 'rare,' 'unique,' 'strange,' or nau 'new,' 'novel.' He refers to himself as the magician of words whose name is "the mirror of the invisible. Nozhat AL-MAJĀLES an anthology of some 4,000 quatrains (robāʿi; a total of 4,139 quatrains 54 of which have been repeated in the text) by some 300 poets of the 5th to 7th/11th-13th centuries compiled around the middle of the 7th/13th century by the Persian poet Jamāl-al-Din Ḵalil Šarvāni. На русском языке предполагает перевод мен собственных Однако ногда чтателям требуется англйскй варант напрмер когда нужно найт матералы на англйском Как же перевест: "Омар Хайям: "? "Omar Khayyam: biography" - правльный варант. … the perusal of Gorgāni’s Vis o Rāmin inspired Neẓāmi’s second major narrative poem: Ḵosrow and Širin (1181) his first masterpiece. Eskandar-Nāma OF NEŻĀMĪ… Whereas the Šaraf-nāma clearly belongs to the tradition of Persian epic poetry — though Neẓāmī makes no attempt to emulate the style and manner of the Šāh-nāma — in the Eqbāl-nāma he shows his talents as a didactic poet an anecdotist and a miniaturist. The centripetal tendency is evident in the unity of Persian literature from the points of view of language and content and also in the sense of civic unity Even the Caucasian Nizami although living on the far-flung periphery does not manifest a different spirit and apostrophizes Iran as the Heart of. «… Nizami was brought up by an uncle He was married three times and in his poems laments the death of each of his wives as well as proferring advice to his son Muhammad He lived in an age of both political instability and intense intellectual activity which his poems reflect; but little is known about his life his relations with his patrons or the precise dates of his works as the accounts of later biographers are colored by the many legends built up around. "as a learned Iranian poet Niẓami who demonstrates his eclecticism in the information he gives (he says «I have taken from everything just what suited me and I have borrowed from recent histories Christian Pahlavi and Jewish … and of them I have made a whole») locates the story of his hero principally. Nizami Ganja’i whose personal name was Ilyas is the most celebrated native poet of the Persians after Firdausi… His nisbah designates him as a native of Ganja (Elizavetpol Kirovabad) in Azerbaijan then still a country with an Iranian population and he spent the whole of his life in Transcaucasia; the verse in some of his poetic works which makes him a native of the hinterland of Qom is a spurious interpolation. Глава 21 О разорен города Гандзак — "Этот многолюдный город [Гандзак] был полон персов а хрстан там. The traditional biographers and some modern researchers differ by six years about the exact date of his birth (535-40/1141-6) and as much as thirty-seven years about the date of his death (575—613/1180-1217) Now there is no doubt however that he died in the 7th/13th century and the earlier dates must be discarded as erroneous. Eskandar-Nāma OF NEŻĀMĪ… But we find also a number of extended parables of only tangential connection with the Alexander story but exceptionally well told The poet then tells of Alexander’s end and adds an account of the circumstances of the death of each of the seven sages It is at this point that an interpolator has added the already mentioned account of Neẓāmī’s. The rose was associated … with Daena one of the female yazatas who was the deity of religion. «… Nizami … He lived in an age of both political instability and intense intellectual activity which his poems reflect; but little is known about his life his relations with his patrons or the precise dates of his works as the accounts of later biographers are colored by the many legends built up around. چونکه ایران دل. Neẓāmī in full Elyās Yūsof Neẓāmī Ganjavī Neẓāmī also spelled Niẓāmī (b c 1141 Ganja Seljuq empire [now Ganca Azerbaijan]—d 1209 Ganja) greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic. The memorization and recitation of their literary heritage has alway beens vital to Iranians whose attitude towards the power of the written and spoken word is revential Even today the national passion for poetry is constantly expressed over radio and television in teahouses in literary socities in daily conversation and in the Musha’areh the poetry recitation contest Nizami’s work serves as a vehicle and a symbol of this tradition Unesco recognised the 1141 date as his birth date and declared 1991 the year of Niẓāmī To honour the 850th anniversary of his birth there were international
Niẓāmī congresses held in 1991 in Washington Los Angeles London and Tabrīz. … the nightingale’s love for the rose was interprete as the mystic’s spiritual yearning for the Divine… В 1940 году азербайджанскй псатель Мехт Гусейн напсал пьесу «Нзам» где воссоздал образ велкого поэта Востока Īldegoz… He also sought to secure his position on the edges of the declining Saljuq empire by gaining control over parts of Azerbaijan; he probably gained clear control over it only after the death of Masʿūd’s last favorite Ḵāṣṣ Beg Arslān b Palangarī in 548/1153 who had been given a position in that area. … the great 12th century Persian poet Nezami who in the famous Haft Peykar («The Seven Portraits») wrote that «The world is the body and Iran is. Своё первое монументальное прозведене Нзам напсал под воздействем поэмы персдского поэта Сана «Сад стн» («Хадкат аль-Хаккат») «However it was not Tabari directly but Ferdowsi who was Nizami’s source of inspiration and material in composing Iskandarnameh Nizami constantly alludes to the Shahnameh in his writing especially in the prologue to the Iskandarnameh It seems that he was always fascinated by the work of Firdawsi and made it a goal of his life to write an heroic epic of the same stature.» As the scene of the greatest flowering of the panegyrical qasida southern Caucasia occupies a prominent place in New Persian literary history But this region also gave to the world Persia’s finest creator of romantic epics Hakim Jamal al-din Abu Muhammad Ilyas b Yusuf b Zaki b Mu’ayyad Nizami a native of Ganja in Azarbaijan is an unrivaled master of thoughts and words a poet whose freshness and vigor all the succeeding centuries have been unable. The antiquity of rose cultivation in Iran … would appear to be confirmed linguistically. The first attempt at a critical edition was made by Waḥid Dastgerdi (Tehran 1934-39 with several reprints). Another salient feature of Nizamfs style is the introduction of aphorisms Long passages of Layll and Majnun are composed in epigrammatic style and many of the poem’s maxims have become proverbs. Перс.
Ḵosrow o Širin… The poem was composed over a period of about 16 lunar years between 571/1175-6 and 587/1191 (cf de Blois pp 440 446; Zarrinkub p 25ff.) It contains eulogies to the Seljuq sultan Ṭöḡrol III b Arsalān (571 /1175-6-590/1194) to his nominal vassal but actual master the atābak (q.v.) of Azerbaijan Abu Jaʿfar Moḥammad b Ildegez Jahān-Pahlavān (571/1175-6-582/1186-7) and to the latter’s brother and successor Qezel Arsalān (582/1186-7. «Usually there is more precise biographical information about the Persian court poets but Nizāmī was not a court poet; he feared loss of integrity in this role and craved primarily for the freedom of artistic creation.» Gol or gul; rose (Rosa L spp.) and by extension flower bloom blossom. Leyli O MAJNUN … The romance belongs to the ʿUḏri (ʿOḏri) genre The plot ofʿUḏri stories is simple and revolves around unrequited love; the characters are semi-historical and their actions are similar to and easily interchangeable with those of characters from otherʿUḏri romances «В лучшей старейшей з звестных мне рукопсей Нзам прнадлежащей Нацональной бблотеке в Парже датрованной 763 г (1360 г н. э.) этой строк не меется.» The first of his five (see below) ‘Treasures’ was influenced by Sanāʾi of Ghazna’s (d 1131) monumental Garden of Truth (Ḥadiqa al-ḥadiq wa šariʿa al-ṭariqa; q.v.). … he (Rumi) exhorts the mystic to abandon his carnal self in order that he might himself become like the scent of the rose that guids others to the divine Rose Garden. 13 марта 2014 г в Государственном Эрмтаже состоялся вечер памят о научной конференц посвященной 800-летю Нзам проведенной Эрмтажем в блокадном Леннграде в октябре. Банкнота Азербайджана номналом в 500 манат с смволческм портретом Нзам Гянджев Although some scholars consider Mak̲h̲zan al-asrār a mystical poem the mysticism with its symbolism is apparent only in the introduction which is infused with the essence of Ṣūfī thought. … the title of the story can be translated as the «Seven Portraits» the «Seven Effigies» as well as the «Seven Princesses» The poem is also known as the Haft gunbad or «Seven Domes». The Divan of Hafiz inspired Goethe to write the three hundred poems of his West- Eastern Divan… Hakim Jamal al-din Abu Muhammad Ilyas b Yusuf b Zaki b Mu’ayyad Nizami a native of Ganja in Azarbaijan… Little is known of his life the only source being his own works which in many cases provided no reliable information. Although the tale points primarily to the power of psychological suggestion what is of significance for our topic is that it is the mysterious nature of scent and of the scent of the rose in particular that serves as the metaphorical vehicle in this classic text of medival Persian poetic narrative. Niẓāmī's originality lies in his psychological portrayal of the richness and complexity of the human soul when confronted with intense and abiding love. We can only deduce that he was born between 535 and 540 (1140-46) and that his background. But the manuscripts of the ‘a’ recension have altered (or miscopied?) the name of the dedicatee to Qïzïl Arslān retained the verse giving the day month and hour of completion but altered the year to «after ṯā (variant: tā) and ṣād and ḥē» i.e either «after 498» (which is much too early) or «after 598/1202.» В свою очередь ранске сследовател прводят аналогчные прмеры персдского самосознаня в стхах Нзам отмечают что в его стхах «тюрк» л «ндус» не нацональност а поэтческе смволы Its popularization was accelerated by Layli Majnun a romantic epic of about 4,000 verses composed in 1188 by Nizami at the request of Akhsatan I of Azerbaijan. Though he did not write for the stage he could be called a master dramatist The plot in his romantic stories is carefully constructed to enhance the stories' psychological complexities The characters work and grow under the stress of action to discover things about themselves and others and to make swift decisions. «At all events his mother was of Iranian origin the poet himself calling her Ra’isa and describing her as Kurdish.» … the use of concise and pithy expressions but also in the insertion of colloquial speech The poet’s language is idiomatically rich but stylistically deceptively relaxed and simple especially in dialogues and monologues. После смерт Малк-шаха сфахан потерял положене главного научного центра царской резденц Пршла в запустене в конце концов была закрыта обсерваторя а столцу перенесл в г Мерв (Хоросан) Омар покнул двор навсегда возвратлся в Ншапур.
In recognition of his vast knowledge and brilliant mind the honorific title of ḥakīm "learned doctor " was bestowed upon him by scholars.  Хосров восхщенный рассказом друга лшается сна думает лшь о неведомой пер Наконец он посылает Шапура в Арменю за Шрн Шапур мчтся в армянскх горах где лазурные скалы облачены в желтые красные одежды цветов. «…nizami’S mother was of Kurdish origin and this might point to Ganja where the Kurdish dynasty of Shaddad ruled down to AH 468; even now Kurds are found to the south. «Little is known of his life the only source being his own works which in many cases provided no reliable information.» This is one of the very few editions of a classical Persian text that uses a strict text-critical methodology: the editors divided the principal manuscripts into two families (called ‘a’ and ‘b’) Only those verses shared by both families are regarded as authentic The ‘b’ family is taken as the main basis for the edition with those verses missing in the ‘a’ family printed in square brackets. Омар Хайям сначала вел свою научную деятельность пр дворе прнца Хакана Шамс ал-Мулка в Бухоре Согласно свдетельствам летопсцев 11 века бухарскй правтель окружл почетом Омара даже сажал его на трон рядом.
1991 год был объявлен ЮНЕСКО годом Низами в честь 850-летия поэта … Rumi states that the fragnance of the rose provides a hint of the mystery of the divine Reality that underlies all things… Nizami was a typical product of the Iranian culture He created a bridge between Islamic Iran and pre-Islamic Iran and also between Iran and the whole ancient world. «Abû Muhammad Ilyas ibn Yusuf ibn Zaki Mu’ayyad known by his pen-name of Nizami… He lived in an age of both political instability and intense intellectual activity which his poems reflect; but little is known about his life his relations with his patrons or the precise dates of his works as the accounts of later biographers are colored by the many legends built up around. Пыль прах земля земь; вещество плоть матеря протвоположно духу «The three main literary styles which follow each other consecutively are known as: Khurasani Iraqi and Hindi The time spans of each style are equally flexible Within these broad geographical divisions we then come across certain „literary schools“ which reflect regional peculiarities and idiosyncrasies and are identified with smaller entities like provinces or towns For example there are: the Azerbayjani school the Tabriz school or the Shirvan school.» There are hundreds of them but the sacred number seven enumerates those that the Persians themselves and critics generally consider the greatest These beside Firdausi are Anvari Nizami Jalal ud-Din Rumi Sa’di Hafiz. It seems however more likely that Nizami might represent an ascetic mysticism similar to that of Ghazali and '՝ Attar to which the individualist tendencies of the poet have added more decernable features. The association of the rose with Islam’s prophet was expressed in many spiritually and artistically creative ways… Eskandar-Nāma OF NEŻĀMĪ… In the Eqbāl-nāma Alexander the undisputed ruler of the world is depicted no longer as a warrior but as a sage and a prophet He debates with Greek and Indian philosophers and a sizeable part of the text is occupied by the discourses in which the seven Greek sages elaborate their ideas about the creation. Кроме «Джаваншра» «Ожданя» М Гусейн напсал ещё две пьесы — «Слава» — о жзн погранчнков (1938) «Нзам» (1940). In a highly evocative tale he relates in the Makhzan al-Asrar («Treasury of Secrets») the twelfth-century Persian poet Nizami whose oeuvre is an acknowledged repository of Iranian myths and legends illustrates the way in which the rose was perceived in the Medieval Persian imagination. In honour of Nizámi … The brief notice in Dowlat Shah’s account of the Poets of Persia represents him as the finest writer of the age in which he lived Hafiz thus speaks of him:— Not all the treasured store of ancient days Can boast the sweetness of Nizami’s lays. The traditional biographers and some modern researchers differ by six years about the exact date of. В 1993 году Банк Азербайджанской Республики выпустил банкноту достоинством 500 манат с символическим портретом Низами Гянджеви «At all events his mother was of Iranian origin the poet himself calling her Ra’isa and describing her as Kurdish.» When Nizami who was an unusual gifter child began his formal education he encountered a vast ocean of Islamic sciences He studied the religious sciences as his work reflect and mastered the art of quaranic interpretation and Hadith which are the fundamental and foundational bases of the Islamic sciences. … the poet Nizami has attempted to picture a perfect society—a utopia. В это же время большую звестность на всем Блжнем Востоке получл другой генальный поэт Нзам напсавшй в 1188 г по заказу Ахстана поэму «Лейл Меджнун». Хайям велколепно знал назусть Коран мог столковать любой аят Поэтому даже самые вдные теолог Востока обращалсь к Омару за консультацям де его однако не впсывалсь в слам в ортодоксальном его понман. It is virtually impossible to draw a clear line in Niẓāmī's poetry between the mystical and the erotic the sacred and the profane. Правтел 11 века соревновалсь друг с другом в блеске свты Он переманвал образованных царедворцев Самые влятельные просто требовал ко двору прославвшхся поэтов ученых Не обошла эта участь Омара Службой пр дворе была отмечена его «The author of the collection of documents relating to Arran Mas’ud b Namdar (c 1100) claims Kurdish nationality The mother of the poet Nizami of Ganja was Kurdish (see autobiographical digression in the introduction of Layli wa Majnun) In the 16th century there was a group of 24 septs of Kurds in Qarabagh see Sharaf-nama I 323 Even now the Kurds of the USSR are chiefly grouped south of Ganja Many place-names composed with Kurd are found on both banks of. Международный центр Нзам Гянджев «Abû Muhammad Ilyas ibn Yusuf ibn Zaki Mu’ayyad known by his pen-name of Nizami was born around 1141 in Ganja the capital of Arran in Transcaucasian Azerbaijan where he remained until his death in about 1209 His father who had migrated to Ganja from Qom in north central Iran…» «His father Yusuf and mother Rai’sa died while he was still relatively young but maternal uncle Umar assumed responsibility. Eskandar-Nāma OF NEŻĀMĪ… The principal episodes of the legend of Alexander as known to the Muslim tradition are elaborated in the Šaraf-nāma: the birth of Alexander his succession to the Macedonian throne his war against the Negroes who had invaded Egypt the war with the Persians ending with the defeat and death of Dārā (see DARIUS III) and Alexander’s marriage to Dārā’s daughter his pilgrimage. Родтел поэта рано умерл После смерт отца льяса восптывала мать а после смерт последней — брат матер. Ḵosrow o Širin… … Neẓāmi states that his source was a manuscript kept in Bardaʿ the ancient capital. The most famous Persian rendering of this tale is the epic romance Layla va Majnun by Nizami Ganjavi (1141—1209 A.D.) His Layla and Majnun (1188 A.D.) is the third work in his Khamza (Quintet a collection of five great epic poems) and was written by the order of Akhsatan a king of the Shirvan-shah dynasty. The influence of Neẓāmi’s work on the subsequent development of Persian literature has been enormous Not only each of his poems but also the Ḵamsa as a whole became a pattern that was emulated in later Persian poetry (and also in other Islamic literatures). This city was densely populated with Iranians and a small number of Christians Unesco recognised the 1141 date as his birth date and declared 1991 the year of Niẓāmī. По вероисповеданию Низами был суннитом The Haft peykar has come down to us as part of the Ḵamsa the posthumous collection of Nezami’s narrative poems A critical edition of the Haft peykar was produced by Helmut Ritter and Jan Rypka (Prague printed Istanbul 1934) on the basis of fifteen Ḵamsa manuscripts and the Bombay lithograph. The language of Niẓāmī is unconventional He introduces new and lucid metaphors and images as well as coining. В 1947 году в Гяндже был воздвгнут мавзолей поэта (на месте древнего к тому времен разрушенного) Nizami is not so familiar to western nations as Firdausi Hafiz or Sa’di; but in Persia he is among the foremost classics and in his peculiar field may be placed second to Firdausi. Nizami is not so familiar to western nations as Firdausi Hafiz or Sa’di; but in Persia he is among the foremost classics and in his peculiar field may be placed second to Firdausi. «It seems that Nezami’s favorite pastime was reading Firdawsi’s monumental epic Shahnameh(The book. … but it was Joseph Hammer-Purgstall’s 1812 translation of the fourteenth-century poet Hafiz master of the Ghazel that inspired Goethe’s West-ostlicher Divan. Niẓāmī was a master in the genre of the romantic epic In erotic sensuous verse he explains what makes human beings behave as they do revealing their follies and their glories all their struggles unbridled passions and tragedies. Leyli O MAJNUN a narrative poem of approximately 4,600 lines composed in 584/1188 by the famous poet Neẓāmi. The UNESCO declaration that 1991 was the year of Niẓāmī in honor of the 850th anniversary of the poet’s birth as well as Giacomo Puccini’s use of a story from Haft Paykar for the basis of his opera Turandot exemplify Niẓāmī’s lasting eminence beyond the realm of Persian literature «Nizami’S strong character his social sensibility and his poetic genius fused with his rich Persian cultural heritage to create a new standard of literary achievement Using themes from the oral tradition and written historical records his poems unite pre-Islamic and Islamic Iran» Nizami Ganjevi because of his wide fame and enormous contributions to Persian-language literature is seen as an example of the interconnections between Turkish and Persian cultural strands and of Azerbaijan’s place in Turco-Persian culture. The first poet who frankly acknowledged his indebtedness to Sanai as a writer of a didactical Masnavi was Ilyas ibn Yusuf Nizami. However in spite of his interest in commoners Nizami did not reject the institution of kingship; he always believed it was an integral and sacred part of the Persian way. 295 The sense is apparently «since Persia is the heart of the earth Persia is the best part of the earth because it is certain that the heart is better than. Many later poets have imitated Nizami’s work even if they could not equal and certainly not surpass it; Persians Turks Indians to name only the most important ones The Persian scholar Hekmat has listed not less than forty Persians and thirteen Turkish versions of Layli and Majnun He delineated simple people with as much insight and compassion as the princely heroes in his mat̲h̲nawīs Artisans were particularly dear to him Painters sculptors architects and musicians are carefully portrayed and often play crucial roles. «Abû Muhammad Ilyas ibn Yusuf ibn Zaki Mu’ayyad known by his pen-name of Nizami was born around 1141 in Ganja the capital of Arran in Transcaucasian Azerbaijan where he remained until his death in about 1209 His father who had migrated to Ganja from Qom in north central Iran may have been a civil servant; his mother was a daughter of a Kurdish chieftain; having lost both parents early in his life Nizami was brought up by. … many Persian mystical authors utilized the image of the rose as a symbolical depiction of the Divinity Долгое время кнг Хайяма был незвестным европейскм ученым которые создавал неевклдовую геометрю новую высшую алгебру м пршлось заново пройт нелегкй долгй путь который за 5-6 столетй до нх уже был проложен Хайямом. «Abû Muhammad Ilyas ibn Yusuf ibn Zaki Mu’ayyad known by his pen-name of Nizami was born around 1141 in Ganja the capital of Arran in Transcaucasian Azerbaijan where he remained until his death. Хайям занмался также проблемам флософ зучая научное наследе Авценны Он перевел на фарс с арабского языка некоторые его сочненя проявв новаторство так как в это время роль языка наук грал арабскй язык. «His father Yusuf and mother Rai’sa died while he was still relatively young but maternal uncle Umar assumed responsibility. The details with which Nizami describes musicians are one of the delights of the Khamseh and make it a principal source of our present knowledge of the twelfth-century Persian musical composition and instruments. Мне «Нзам» прозване дано мен в нем тыща ещё одно Обозначенье этх букв благх
Надежней стен грантных крепостных (Перевод Т Стрешневой) Nizami is not so familiar to western nations as Firdausi Hafiz or Sa’di; but in Persia he is among the foremost classics and in his peculiar field may be placed second to Firdausi. Ḵosrow o Širin the second poem of Neẓāmi’s Ḵamsa recounts the amorous relationship between the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parviz (590—628 CE) and the beautiful princess Širin. Farhād a romantic figure in Persian legend and literature best known from the poetry of Neẓāmī Ganjavī (q.v.) as a rival with the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parvēz (r 591—628) for the love of the beautiful Armenian princess Šīrīn. From his poetry it is evident that he was learned not only in mathematics astronomy medicine jurisprudence history and philosophy but also in music and. «It is to be noted that the Seljuks those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia did not Turkify Persia — no doubt because they did not wish to do so On the contrary it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace.» «… He was married three times and in his poems laments the death of each of his wives as well as proferring advice to his son Muhammad.» … the compounds and images are welded together with various elements of the narrative to enhance. Мя носл Ташкентскй государственный педагогческой нсттут The stories in Neẓāmi’s poems have provided the Persian art of the miniature with an abundance of subject matter: his Ḵamsa together with Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma were the most frequently illustrated literary works. Нзам бог между поэтам Как же можно ставть его мя наряду с пророкам? «Alāʾ-Al-Dīn of Marāḡa… He seems to have been a man of pronounced literary interests since at his request the poet Neẓāmī Ganǰavī composed the Haft peykar». Another remarkable feature of Nizaml’s style is his avoidance of every-day words for human occupations emotions and behaviour. Поднялась в ту ночь к Плеядам месяца глава Апогей звезды Бахрама был в созвездье Льва Утард блеснул под утро в знаке Блзнецов А Кейван от Водолея отогнал врагов (пер Вл Державна) Several cities in Īrān are more opulent than many others Richer and more productive by reason of climate and soil [<Arabic>] Of these is Ganjah so full of treasure in Arrān Isfahān in `Irāq In Khurāsān Marv and Ṭus in Rūm (Asia Minor). «We can only deduce that he was born between. Niẓāmī's use of allegories parables and words with double meaning raised the Persian language to a new height. «Abû Muhammad Ilyas ibn Yusuf ibn Zaki Mu’ayyad known by his pen-name of Nizami was born around 1141 in Ganja the capital of Arran in Transcaucasian Azerbaijan where he remained until his death in about 1209 His father who had migrated to Ganja from Qom in north central Iran may have been a civil servant; his mother was a daughter of a Kurdish chieftain; having lost both parents early in his life Nizami was brought up by. In his Noten und Abhandlungen Goethe paid tribute to several other Persian poets: Ferdowsi Anwari Neẓāmi Rumi Saʿdi and Jāmi (Goethe 1998a pp 153-60) But Ḥāfeẓ was the only one to whom he devoted an entire book. The Ḥadiqat al-ḥaqiqa is not only one of the first of a long line of Persian didactical maṯnawis it is also one of the most popular works of its kind as the great number of copies made throughout the centuries attest Its great impact on Persian literature is evidenced by the numerous citations from the poem occurring in mystical as well as profane works It has been taken as a model by several other poets including Neẓāmi ʿAṭṭār Rumi Awḥadi. «Khosrow and Shirin» proved to be a literary turning point not only for Nizami but for all of Persian poetry Furthermore it was the first poem in Persian literature to achieve complete structural and artistic unity In medival Perso-Islamic culture and in poetry in particular which is the finest expression of the Persian creative genious the image of the rose was employed as a vehicle for a variety of concepts It became an especially powerful symbol in the mystical trend that from the twelfth century onwards permeated Persian religious thought and literary culture. Состоянеотпатрулрована The five epic poems represent a total of close to 30,000 couplets … … As a matter of fact contrary to what the usually inaccurate Dawlatshah has maintained our poet was never received formally in a.